Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). The Company is an investment company and, therefore, applies the specialized accounting and reporting guidance in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 946, Financial Services – Investment Companies. In the opinion of management, all adjustments considered necessary for the fair presentation of the consolidated financial statements have been included. The Company was initially capitalized on March 1, 2016 and commenced operations on March 3, 2016. The Company’s fiscal year ends on December 31.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements. Actual amounts could differ from those estimates and such differences could be material.
Cash consists of deposits held at a custodian bank and restricted cash pledged as collateral. Cash is carried at cost, which approximates fair value. The Company deposits its cash with highly-rated banking corporations and, at times, may exceed the insured limits under applicable law.
Investments at Fair Value
Investment transactions are recorded on the trade date. Realized gains or losses are measured by the difference between the net proceeds received and the amortized cost basis of the investment using the specific identification method without regard to unrealized gains or losses previously recognized, and include investments charged off during the period, net of recoveries. The net change in unrealized gains or losses primarily reflects the change in investment values, including the reversal of previously recorded unrealized gains or losses with respect to investments realized during the period. Investments for which market quotations are readily available are typically valued at the average bid price of those market quotations. To validate market quotations, the Company utilizes a number of factors to determine if the quotations are representative of fair value, including the source and number of the quotations. Debt and equity securities that are not publicly traded or whose market prices are not readily available, as is the case for substantially all of the Company’s investments, are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Board, based on, among other things, the input of the Adviser, the Company’s audit committee and independent third-party valuation firm(s) engaged at the direction of the Board.
As part of the valuation process, the Board takes into account relevant factors in determining the fair value of the Company’s investments, including: the estimated enterprise value of a portfolio company (i.e., the total fair value of the portfolio company’s debt and equity), the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments based on its earnings and cash flow, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, a comparison of the portfolio company’s securities to any similar publicly traded securities, and overall changes in the interest rate environment and the credit markets that may affect the price at which similar investments may be made in the future. When an external event such as a purchase or sale transaction, public offering or subsequent equity sale occurs, the Board considers whether the pricing indicated by the external event corroborates its valuation.
The Board undertakes a multi-step valuation process, which includes, among other procedures, the following:
With respect to investments for which market quotations are readily available, those investments will typically be valued at the average bid price of those market quotations;
With respect to investments for which market quotations are not readily available, the valuation process begins with the independent valuation firm(s) providing a preliminary valuation of each investment to the Adviser’s valuation committee;
Preliminary valuation conclusions are documented and discussed with the Adviser’s valuation committee. Agreed upon valuation recommendations are presented to the Audit Committee;
The Audit Committee reviews the valuation recommendations and recommends values for each investment to the Board; and
The Board reviews the recommended valuations and determines the fair value of each investment.
The Company conducts this valuation process on a quarterly basis.
The Company applies Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification 820, Fair Value Measurements (“ASC 820”), as amended, which establishes a framework for measuring fair value in accordance with U.S. GAAP and
required disclosures of fair value measurements. ASC 820 determines fair value to be the price that would be received for an investment in a current sale, which assumes an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Market participants are defined as buyers and sellers in the principal or most advantageous market (which may be a hypothetical market) that are independent, knowledgeable, and willing and able to transact. In accordance with ASC 820, the Company considers its principal market to be the market that has the greatest volume and level of activity. ASC 820 specifies a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes and ranks the level of observability of inputs used in determination of fair value. In accordance with ASC 820, these levels are summarized below:
Level 1 – Valuations based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access.
Level 2 – Valuations based on quoted prices in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3 – Valuations based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.
Transfers between levels, if any, are recognized at the beginning of the period in which the transfer occurs. In addition to using the above inputs in investment valuations, the Company applies the valuation policy approved by its Board that is consistent with ASC 820. Consistent with the valuation policy, the Company evaluates the source of the inputs, including any markets in which its investments are trading (or any markets in which securities with similar attributes are trading), in determining fair value. When an investment is valued based on prices provided by reputable dealers or pricing services (such as broker quotes), the Company subjects those prices to various criteria in making the determination as to whether a particular investment would qualify for treatment as a Level 2 or Level 3 investment. For example, the Company, or the independent valuation firm(s), reviews pricing support provided by dealers or pricing services in order to determine if observable market information is being used, versus unobservable inputs.
Due to the inherent uncertainty of determining the fair value of investments that do not have a readily available market value, the fair value of the Company’s investments may fluctuate from period to period. Additionally, the fair value of such investments may differ significantly from the values that would have been used had a ready market existed for such investments and may differ materially from the values that may ultimately be realized. Further, such investments are generally less liquid than publicly traded securities and may be subject to contractual and other restrictions on resale. If the Company were required to liquidate a portfolio investment in a forced or liquidation sale, it could realize amounts that are different from the amounts presented and such differences could be material.
In addition, changes in the market environment and other events that may occur over the life of the investments may cause the gains or losses ultimately realized on these investments to be different than the unrealized gains or losses reflected herein.
Financial and Derivative Instruments

Pursuant to ASC 815 Derivatives and Hedging, all derivative instruments entered into by the Company are designated as hedging instruments. For all derivative instruments designated as a hedge, the entire change in the fair value of the hedging instrument shall be recorded in the same line item of the Consolidated Statements of Operations as the hedged item. The Company’s derivative instruments are used to hedge the Company’s fixed rate debt, and therefore both the periodic payment and the change in fair value for the effective hedge, if applicable, will be recognized as components of interest expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Fair value is estimated by discounting remaining payments using applicable current market rates, or market quotes, if available. Rule 18f-4 was recently adopted by the SEC, and requires BDCs that use derivatives to, among other things, comply with a value-at-risk leverage limit, adopt a derivatives risk management program, and implement certain testing and board reporting procedures.
Foreign Currency
Foreign currency amounts are translated into U.S. dollars on the following basis:
cash, fair value of investments, outstanding debt, other assets and liabilities: at the spot exchange rate on the last business day of the period; and
purchases and sales of investments, borrowings and repayments of such borrowings, income and expenses: at the rates of exchange prevailing on the respective dates of such transactions.
The Company includes net changes in fair values on investments held resulting from foreign exchange rate fluctuations with the change in unrealized gains (losses) on translation of assets and liabilities in foreign currencies on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The Company’s current approach to hedging the foreign currency exposure in its non-U.S. dollar denominated investments is primarily to borrow the par amount in local currency under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility to fund these investments. Fluctuations arising from the translation of foreign currency borrowings are included with the net change in unrealized gains (losses) on translation of assets and liabilities in foreign currencies on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Investments denominated in foreign currencies and foreign currency transactions may involve certain considerations and risks not typically associated with those of domestic origin, including unanticipated movements in the value of the foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar.

Interest and Dividend Income Recognition

Interest income is recorded on the accrual basis and includes amortization or accretion of premiums or discounts. Certain investments may have contractual payment-in-kind (“PIK”) interest or dividends. PIK interest and dividends represent accrued interest or dividends that are added to the principal amount or liquidation amount of the investment on the respective interest or dividend payment dates rather than being paid in cash and generally becomes due at maturity or at the occurrence of a liquidation event. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, PIK interest and PIK dividend income earned was $37.6 million and $97.2 million, representing 11.9% and 11.4% of investment income, respectively. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, PIK interest and PIK dividend income earned was $16.0 million and $38.2 million, representing 5.9% and 5.2% of investment income, respectively. Discounts to par value on securities purchased are amortized into interest income over the contractual life of the respective security using the effective yield method. Premiums to par value on securities purchased are amortized to first call date. The amortized cost of investments represents the original cost adjusted for the amortization or accretion of premiums or discounts, if any. Upon prepayment of a loan or debt security, any prepayment premiums, unamortized upfront loan origination fees and unamortized discounts are recorded as interest income in the current period.
Loans are generally placed on non-accrual status when there is reasonable doubt that principal or interest will be collected in full. Accrued interest is generally reversed when a loan is placed on non-accrual status. Interest payments received on non-accrual loans may be recognized as income or applied to principal depending upon management’s judgment regarding collectability. If at any point the Company believes PIK interest or dividends are not expected to be realized, the investment generating PIK interest or dividends will be placed on non-accrual status. When a PIK investment is placed on non-accrual status, the accrued, uncapitalized interest or dividends are generally reversed through interest income. Non-accrual loans are restored to accrual status when past due principal and interest is paid current and, in management’s judgment, are likely to remain current. Management may make exceptions to this treatment and determine to not place a loan on non-accrual status if the loan has sufficient collateral value and is in the process of collection.
Dividend income on preferred equity securities is recorded on the accrual basis to the extent that such amounts are payable by the portfolio company and are expected to be collected. Dividend income on common equity securities is recorded on the record date for private portfolio companies or on the ex-dividend date for publicly-traded portfolio companies.
Other Income
From time to time, the Company may receive fees for services provided to portfolio companies. These fees are generally only available to the Company as a result of closing investments, are generally paid at the closing of the investments, are generally non-recurring and are recognized as revenue when earned upon closing of the investment. The services that the Adviser provides vary by investment, but can include closing, work, diligence or other similar fees and fees for providing managerial assistance to our portfolio companies.
Offering Expenses
Costs associated with the private placement offering of common shares of the Company were capitalized as deferred offering expenses and included in prepaid expenses and other assets in the Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities and were amortized over a twelve-month period from incurrence. The Company records expenses related to public equity offerings as a reduction of capital upon completion of an offering of registered securities. The costs associated with renewals of the Company’s shelf registration statement will be expensed as incurred.
Debt Issuance Costs
The Company records origination and other expenses related to its debt obligations as deferred financing costs. These expenses are deferred and amortized utilizing the effective yield method, over the life of the related debt instrument. Debt issuance costs are presented on the Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities as a direct deduction from the debt liability. In circumstances in which there is not an associated debt liability amount recorded in the consolidated financial statements when the debt issuance costs are incurred, such debt issuance costs will be reported on the Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities as an asset until the debt liability is recorded.
Reimbursement of Transaction-Related Expenses
The Company may receive reimbursement for certain transaction-related expenses in pursuing investments. Transaction-related expenses, which are generally expected to be reimbursed by the Company’s portfolio companies, are typically deferred until the transaction is consummated and are recorded in prepaid expenses and other assets on the date incurred. The costs of successfully
completed investments not otherwise reimbursed are borne by the Company and are included as a component of the investment’s cost basis.
Cash advances received in respect of transaction-related expenses are recorded as cash with an offset to accrued expenses and other liabilities. Accrued expenses and other liabilities are relieved as reimbursable expenses are incurred.
Income Taxes
The Company has elected to be treated as a BDC under the 1940 Act. The Company has elected to be treated as a RIC under the Code beginning with its taxable year ending December 31, 2016 and intends to continue to qualify as a RIC. So long as the Company maintains its tax treatment as a RIC, it generally will not pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any ordinary income or capital gains that it distributes at least annually to its shareholders as dividends. Instead, any tax liability related to income earned and distributed by the Company represents obligations of the Company’s investors and will not be reflected in the consolidated financial statements of the Company.
To qualify as a RIC, the Company must, among other things, meet certain source-of-income and asset diversification requirements. In addition, to qualify for RIC tax treatment, the Company must distribute to its shareholders, for each taxable year, at least 90% of its “investment company taxable income” for that year, which is generally its ordinary income plus the excess of its realized net short-term capital gains over its realized net long-term capital losses. In order for the Company not to be subject to U.S. federal excise taxes, it must distribute annually an amount at least equal to the sum of (i) 98% of its net ordinary income (taking into account certain deferrals and elections) for the calendar year, (ii) 98.2% of its capital gains in excess of capital losses for the one-year period ending on October 31 of the calendar year and (iii) any net ordinary income and capital gains in excess of capital losses for preceding years that were not distributed during such years. The Company, at its discretion, may carry forward taxable income in excess of calendar year dividends and pay a 4% nondeductible U.S. federal excise tax on this income.
Certain of the Company’s consolidated subsidiaries are subject to U.S. federal and state corporate-level income taxes.
The Company evaluates tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing its consolidated financial statements to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” to be sustained by the applicable tax authority. Tax positions not deemed to meet the “more-likely-than-not” threshold are reserved and recorded as a tax benefit or expense in the current year. All penalties and interest associated with income taxes are included in income tax expense. Conclusions regarding tax positions are subject to review and may be adjusted at a later date based on factors including, but not limited to, on-going analyses of tax laws, regulations and interpretations thereof. There were no material uncertain tax positions through December 31, 2021. The 2019 through 2021 tax years remain subject to examination by the IRS, and generally years 2018 through 2021 remain subject to examination by state and local tax authorities.
Distributions to Common Shareholders
Distributions to common shareholders are recorded on the record date. The amount to be distributed is determined by the Board and is generally based upon the earnings estimated by the Adviser. Net realized long-term capital gains, if any, would generally be distributed at least annually, although the Company may decide to retain such capital gains for investment.
The Company has adopted a dividend reinvestment plan that provides for reinvestment of any cash distributions on behalf of shareholders, unless a shareholder elects to receive cash. As a result, if the Board authorizes and declares a cash distribution, then the shareholders who have not “opted out” of the dividend reinvestment plan will have their cash distribution automatically reinvested in additional shares of the Company’s common stock, rather than receiving the cash distribution. The Company expects to use newly issued shares or shares purchased in the open-market to implement the dividend reinvestment plan.
As provided under Regulation S-X and ASC Topic 946 – Financial Services – Investment Companies, the Company will generally not consolidate its investment in a company other than a wholly-owned investment company or controlled operating company whose business consists of providing services to the Company. Accordingly, the Company consolidated the accounts of the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries that meet the aforementioned criteria in its consolidated financial statements. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company does not consolidate its equity interest in ORCC Senior Loan Fund LLC (fka Sebago Lake LLC) ("ORCC SLF"), Wingspire Capital Holdings LLC (“Wingspire”) or AAM Series 1.1 Rail and Domestic Intermodal Feeder, LLC and AAM Series 2.1 Aviation Feeder, LLC (collectively, "Amergin AssetCo"). For further description of the Company’s investment in ORCC SLF, see Note 4 “Investments”. For further description of the Company’s investment in Wingspire and Amergin AssetCo, see Note 3 “Agreements and Related Party Transactions – Controlled/Affiliated Portfolio Companies”.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848),” which provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The amendments apply only to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference London
Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848),” which expanded the scope of Topic 848 to include derivative instruments impacted by discounting transition. ASU 2020-04 and ASU 2021-01 are effective for all entities through December 31, 2022.
ASU No. 2021-01 provides increased clarity as the Company continues to evaluate the transition of reference rates and is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU No. 2020-04 and 2021-01 on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-03, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820),” which clarifies the guidance in Topic 820 when measuring the fair value of an equity security subject to contractual restrictions that prohibit the sale of an equity security and introduces new disclosure requirements for equity securities subject to contractual sale restrictions that are measured at fair value in accordance with Topic 820. The amendments affect all entities that have investments in equity securities measured at fair value that are subject to a contractual sale restriction. ASU 2022-03 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for both interim and annual financial statements that have not yet been issued or made available for issuance. An entity that qualifies as an investment company under Topic 946 should apply the amendments in ASU No. 2022-03 to an investment in an equity security subject to a contractual sale restriction that is executed or modified on or after the date of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU No. 2022-03 on the consolidated financial statements.
Other than the aforementioned guidance, the Company’s management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standards, if currently adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying consolidated financial statements.